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Organ Transplant

You may need an organ transplant if one of your organs has failed. This can happen because of illness or injury. When you have an organ transplant, doctors remove an organ from another person and place it in your body. The organ may come from a living donor or a donor who has died.You often have to wait a long time for an organ transplant. Doctors must match donors to recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. Rejection happens when your immune system attacks the new organ. If you have a transplant, you must take drugs the rest of your life to help keep your body from rejecting the new organ.

  • Heart Transplant
  • Lung Transplant
  • Liver Transplant
  • Kidney Transplant
  • Uters Transplant
  • Heart transplant

    A heart transplant is an operation in which a failing heart is replaced with a healthier donor heart. Heart transplant is a treatment that's usually reserved for people whose condition hasn't improved enough with medications or other surgeries.

    Why it's done

    Heart transplants are performed when other treatments for heart problems haven't worked, leading to heart failure. In adults, heart failure can be caused by:

  • A weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Heart valve disease
  • A heart problem you're born with (congenital heart defect)
  • Dangerous recurring abnormal heart rhythms (ventricular arrhythmias) not controlled by other treatment
  • Failure of a previous heart transplant
  • In children, heart failure is most often caused by either a congenital heart defect or cardiomyopathy.

    Another organ transplant may be performed at the same time as a heart transplant (multiorgan transplant) in people with certain conditions at select medical centers.

    Multiorgan transplants include:

  • Heart-kidney transplant.
  • This procedure may be an option for some people with kidney failure in addition to heart failure

  • Heart-liver transplant.
  • This procedure may be an option for people with certain liver and heart conditions.

  • Heart-lung transplant
  • Rarely, doctors may suggest this procedure for some people with severe lung and heart diseases if the conditions cannot be treated with only a heart transplant or a lung transplant.

    A heart transplant is not right for everyone, however. You might not be a good candidate for a heart transplant if you:

  • Are at an advanced age that would interfere with the ability to recover from transplant surgery
  • Have another medical condition that could shorten your life, regardless of receiving a donor heart, such as a serious kidney, liver or lung disease
  • Have an active infection
  • Have a recent personal medical history of cancer
  • Are unwilling or unable to make lifestyle changes necessary to keep your donor heart healthy, such as not using recreational drugs, not smoking and limiting alcohol use
  • Ventricular assist devices

    For some people who cannot have a heart transplant, another option may be a ventricular assist device (VAD). A VAD is a mechanical pump implanted in your chest that helps pump blood from the lower chambers of your heart (ventricles) to the rest of your body.

    VADs are commonly used as temporary treatments for people waiting for heart transplants. These devices are increasingly being used as long-term treatment for people who have heart failure but are not eligible for heart transplants. If a VAD doesn't help your heart, doctors may sometimes consider a total artificial heart — a device that replaces the ventricles of your heart — as an alternative short-term treatment while you're waiting for a heart transplant.

    What is a lung transplant?

    A lung transplant is a surgical method involving transplanting partially or completely diseased lungs and replacing them with healthy ones. The procedure may involve the replacement of only one lung or both of them after reviewing the medical condition of a patient. The lung transplant is of different types that are:

  • Single lung transplant
  • Double lung transplant
  • Bilateral sequential transplant
  • Herat-lung transplant
  • Causes that may push you to have a lung transplant

    We know oxygen is everything. Then how can a person with a diseased or damaged lung survive? Different person has different lung problem that may lead to severe lung damage. The common causes are:

  • Sarcoidosis: The formation of tiny collections of inflammatory cells (granulomas) occurs in the lungs. It leads to breathing difficulties.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): It is a chronic lung disease due to blockage of airflow within the lungs. The natural breathing pattern gets disturbed.
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF): It is a genetically inherited lung disorder that can be fatal sometimes.
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis: In this condition, the lung tissues get damaged, and scars appear.
  • Pulmonary Hypertension: It is a kind of high blood pressure affecting the pulmonary arteries and the right side of the heart.
  • There may be other reasons for a lung transplant.

    How do you know if you need a Lung Transplant?

    The earlier mentioned diseases lead you to a lung transplant. If you have any of those, you may need surgery. Lung transplant gives a new life to people having chronic, end-stage lung disorders. The basic requirements of a lung transplant may include:

  • Having an end-stage pulmonary disorder
  • Knowing that you will have a limited time to live
  • Having an ability to afford nutritious foods as per your doctor
  • A home for a proper rehabilitation
  • Having a physical, mental, and emotional support system
  • Risks associated with a lung transplant

    All kinds of organ transplant procedures bring risks that may arise during the treatment and post-surgery period. Risks that are common in most cases are:

  • Organ rejection - mostly happens during the first 3 months after surgery.
  • Side effects of anti-rejection drugs - gaining weight, upset stomach
  • Use of immunosuppressants for a long time - may lead to develop or increase the risk of kidney damage, type 2 diabetes, high BP, osteoporosis, cancer.
  • Reimplantation response - fluid-filled lungs with symptoms such as coughing up blood and shortness of breath.
  • Infection - bacterial, viral, and fungal.
  • Diagnosis of a Lung Transplant

    Before confirming whether you are eligible for a transplant or not, you need to go through a series of medical tests. It includes:

  • Blood tests
  • Chest X-rays
  • CT Scans
  • Tissue typing
  • Electrocardiopgram (ECG)
  • Pulmonary Function tests
  • Gynecological tests for women
  • Lung Transplant evaluation process

    The evaluation process is necessary to know your overall health condition. The main components are:

  • Psychological and social evaluation: It is essential in organ transplantation where few conditions such as stress, financial problems, and a supportive family or friends are determined.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests are crucial to select a suitable donor match and reduce the chances of organ rejection.
  • Diagnostic imaging: Diagnostic tests help determine your overall health condition, including the lungs. The series of tests may include X-rays, Computed Tomography (CT scan), pulmonary function tests, lung biopsy, and dental tests. Women may go through a Pap test, mammograms, and a gynecology evaluation.
  • Other preparations: A few immunizations are given to lower the chances of developing infections that can affect the lungs after surgery. Also, if you smoke, you must quit it.
  • How do you prepare yourself for a lung transplant? Pre-surgery preparation

    After a thorough evaluation, you will have to wait for a donor. The transplant center put your name on the waiting list. The period to getting a lung donor may vary. While waiting, the doctors may advise you to partake in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. This program improves lung function in daily life and helps lead a better life before and after the surgery.

    After finding a donor, the doctors begin a matching procedure. When they find out the lungs are compatible with yours, they perform the surgical procedure.

    In some cases, a recipient finds out a living donor to get rid of waiting for an indefinite amount of time.

    During the surgery

    Before initiation of the surgery, the transplant team will give you or your relatives an overview of the process. Your doctor will bar you from eating or drinking for eight hours before the transplant. After that, the transplant team starts the procedure.

    1. General Anesthesia: An anesthesiologist will give you general anesthesia to make sure that you remain unconscious for a few hours.

    2. Ventilator Support: The doctors will put you on ventilator support that helps you keep on breathing and doing other bodily functions.

    3. Incision and Removal: The surgeon will cut open your thoracic region (chest) to remove your damaged lung.

    4. The Final Step: The doctors will place the new lung and reconnect the blood vessels. Finally, they will end the procedure by stitching the cut. In a heart-lung transplant, you will be connected to a heart-lung bypass machine responsible for blood circulation throughout the procedure.

    After the surgery

    After the surgery, you will move to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close monitoring. Your condition depicts the duration of to stay in the ICU. You could move to the special care unit in the hospital that keeps lung transplant patients.

    Close monitoring will continue. Your doctors will advise your relatives on the do and don'ts during the time. The advice includes information about medications, movement, follow-up, diet, and any other specific instructions from your transplant team.

    The post-surgery complications

    Like any other surgery, a lung transplant also has some complications. The post-surgery complications are as follows:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Blockage of the blood vessels to the transplanted lung(s)
  • Blockage of the airways
  • Severe pulmonary oedema (fluid-filled in the lung after the surgery)
  • Clotting of blood
  • Rejection of the new organ
  • Life at home after a lung transplant

  • Keep the wounded area clean and dry. Your doctor will advise you to shower carefully. The removal of stitches will be done during a follow-up office visit.
  • The follow-up visits include blood tests, chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, ECG, bronchoscopy, and lung biopsy to check your recovery status.
  • You should be extra careful with your activities and movements.
  • An organ transplant involves the rejection of a foreign organ. Hence, you will live on medicines for the rest of your life to battle against rejection.
  • You should immediately see your doctor if you feel any discomfort.
  • Follow a diet chart given by your dietitian and stay away from nicotine
  • What are the advantages of lung transplants in India?

    India is one of the countries that has notable advantages for organ transplants. The reasons to choose lung transplant for India are as follows:

  • The infrastructure and availability of multi-specialty hospitals are commendable.
  • The doctors are skilled, experienced, and well-educated about the latest transplant techniques.
  • The hospitals in India are patient-friendly, and the staffs are hospitable.
  • The success rate of lung transplants in India lies around 87%.
  • The one-year survival rate is approximately 50%, and the survival rate for five years is about 80%.
  • People prefer lung transplant in India mostly because it is cost-effective. For the same surgery, the developed countries charge a few times higher than India.
  • Medical tourism enables foreigners to visit India for organ transplants with no hassle.
  • Kidney Transplant

    What is a kidney transplant?

    A kidney transplant is a surgery to replace a malfunctioning kidney with a healthy kidney from a living or recently dead donor.

    Sometimes, doctors perform a living-donor transplant. It is when a known individual who is a good match agrees to donate a kidney

    Usually, the surgery is about transplanting a single kidney. The number may be two in rare cases

    Causes of transplanting a kidney

    A person undergoes a kidney transplantation process when the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) appears. It happens due to losing the filtering ability of kidneys (of about 90%), which leads to high BP and eventually renal failure.

    Reasons behind ESRD are:

  • Diabetes and prolonged high blood pressure
  • polycystic kidney disease or other hereditary illnesses
  • Glomerulonephritis - inflammation of the glomeruli (tiny filters in the kidneys consist of blood vessels)
  • Obstruction in the urinary tract.
  • Some other causes may include drug abuse, inflammation, heart disease etc.

    How do you know if you need a Kidney Transplant?

    You should consult a doctor on an urgent basis when you face the following symptoms. These may be the signs of a kidney disorder.

  • Changes in urination
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Nausea and drowsiness
  • Unusual heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Excessively high blood pressure
  • Feet and ankles swelling
  • Kidney Transplantation: Symptoms

    Various symptoms of kidney failure are:

  • Fatigue, patient feel tired most of the time.
  • Feeling cold when others rewarm
  • Shortness of breath after little effort
  • Feeling faint, dizzy, and weak
  • Feeling itchy
  • Swelling in feet and hand
  • Puffy face
  • Metallic taste
  • Ammonia breath
  • Frequent urination at night
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Brown, red or purple urine
  • Pressure while urination
  • Preparation of Kidney Transplant

    The most ideal approach to plan for a kidney transplant is to:

  • make solid propensity changes.
  • Begin exercising routinely on the off chance that you're not as of now.
  • Begin eating a sound eating routine—this will help both before and after the surgery. "In case of a kidney transplant,
  • It's essential for the patient to stop smoking,
  • The person who is going to have a kidney transplant should have a few tests at the transfer community before the transfer group can choose whether the medical procedure will be ok for the patient. The tests patient may require to include:

  • Blood and tissue type tests
  • Tests for HIV and hepatitis
  • Prostate test (for men)
  • Mammogram and Pap smear (for ladies)
  • Heart and lung tests
  • Kidney and liver tests
  • Colon test (colonoscopy)
  • The kidney transplant process

    he surgery starts with general anaesthesia, so you stay unconscious during the process. The surgeons observe your heart rate, blood pressure and SpO2 (blood oxygen level) during the operation. The following steps briefly tell us how the process is carried out.

  • The specialist makes a long cut in the lower part of one side of the abdomen and replaces the patient's kidney with the donated one.
  • The renal artery and vein of the new kidney are connected to the blood vessels in the recipient's lower abdominal region.
  • The donor kidney's ureter (the tube that drains urine from the kidneys to the bladder) is linked to the bladder.
  • Life After Kidney Transplant

    You require extra care and must be watchful about your post-surgery health conditions. In general, your expectations include:

    What is uterus transplant?

    There has been discussion encompassing this transplant for quite a while because of the top clinical preliminary result. The primary transplant was fruitful, yet the organ was taken out soon after the transplant because of tissue death. Notwithstanding the disappointment of the underlying preliminary, there have been effective transplants finished, some of which yielded full-term pregnancies.

    Why is uterus transplant?

    A significant surgery in clinical preliminaries — Uterus Transplant is promoted as a beam of trust in women with conditions that do not let them become pregnant, for instance, a strangely formed uterus or vagina. In any case, the technique conveys impressive dangers that exceed its potential benefits.

    How does Uterus Transplant work?

    The uterus and encompassing veins must be transplanted and associated all together for the organ to endure. The organ and its veins are then appended to the lady's vagina and uterine veins. This is like how other significant organ transplants are finished. For examination, a commonplace kidney transplant takes around a few hours, as per the National Kidney Foundation—33% of the time required for the transplant. At the same time, the last is another method. The lady's Fallopian tubes are not joined to the new organ since in vitro preparation (IVF) is required for the lady to imagine. With IVF, you typically sidestep the Fallopian tubes at any rate.

    Yet, it will require significant investment before the lady can go through IVF to embed the undeveloped organisms she has just had frozen. When the new organ is transplanted, it takes approximately one year to mend. During that time, she'll need to take medicine to ensure that her body doesn't dismiss the new organ.

    Symptoms Uterus Transplant.

    Uterine transplantation sets up ladies for conceivably critical passionate, and emotional wellness concerns. Patients who need the strategy ordinarily have experienced numerous barrenness treatment rounds and likely have adapted to pregnancy misfortune.

    Types of Uterus Transplant

    The giver organ for this transplant can emerge out of a living contributor or a perished benefactor. All in all, living giver transplantation (of any organ) is favored because the technique is altogether elective (giving sufficient time for an intensive and appropriate clinical and careful assessment of both contributor and beneficiary). The timeframe in which the benefactor organ is without its blood flexibly is concise, bringing about better outcomes looked at than expired giver organ transplants.

    The genuine interest in transplantation and geographic foundation contrasts will decide the number of perished giver uterine transplants instead of living contributor transplants later on. With a low claim, living benefactor uterine transplant will prevail.

    Uterus Transplant Procedure

    Get hold of a donor

    Any sound lady could be a reasonable benefactor. However, since having the evacuation medical procedure accompanies genuine dangers and results (more on this in a piece), the giver is commonly a nearby family member or companion. Nonetheless, age is a factor: Those more seasoned than 60 may have reduced uterine veins that are expected to keep the transplanted organ supported in its new home. Contributors must be liberated from specific STDs, have no set of diabetes or hypertension experiences, have a BMI of under 30, have had in any event one full-term conveyance, and be malignant growth free for at any rate five years.

    Preparing for pregnancy

    You'd figure this progression would come later. However, it occurs before anything careful happens. There's no unconstrained or familiar origination following a transplant. All organ beneficiaries must experience in vitro preparation (IVF), frequently months ahead of the medical procedure. This implies they have eggs inside their ovaries removed and blended in with sperm (maybe from an accomplice or giver) to make frozen undeveloped organisms. Afterward, when the transplant a medical procedure is finished, the incipient organisms will be moved to and ideally embedded in the person's new organ.

    The medical procedures

    As you presumably speculated, the major surgery is recovering the benefactor's organ. It's a transplant, and it's a new one. We can contrast it with a hysterectomy. With regard to the benefactor medical procedure, likely somewhat more cluttered than a fundamental hysterectomy. It takes around five hours. For the beneficiary, the transplant itself takes about five hours as well. ... At that point, after you have it, you don't have a quick achievement. First, you need to realize the organ is remaining with the beneficiary. You have the periods coming, demonstrating its practical. At that point, you need to embed the incipient organism. Afterward, you have a pregnancy at last, and later you need to stand by the nine months before you have an infant. So the genuine achievement is one and a half years down the line. That is uncommon in the treatment.

    Pregnancy and birth

    Beneficiaries need to stand by for some time after a medical procedure to ensure everything is working appropriately before taking the new organ for an origination trial. Preferably, those conceived without an organ have their periods unexpectedly (short the center school anxiety). However, once more, regular origination is preposterous. Here's why: During ovulation, the ovaries can't deliver an egg into the new organ since the Fallopian tubes are not associated with it — the medical procedure doesn't address this.

    Yet, IVF can be a robust workaround: If the transplant seems fruitful, the frozen incipient organisms are moved ideally to bring about an origination. Accepting all goes to design (pregnancy is accomplished, and the beneficiary conveys the infant to full-term), the conveyance must happen through c-segment. Since a transplanted organ doesn't have any nerve associations, the work sensations and cycles fundamental for vaginal conveyance can't be genuinely accomplished.

    Uterus Transplant Benefits

    The undeniable bit of leeway to the transplantation is the creation or reclamation of richness. In any case, just a small minority of female fruitlessness cases require such transplants. For those applicants who might profit, different preferences are generally protected and elective medical procedures, anticipated superb results, the “fleeting transplant” alternative (i.e., stop the immunosuppression and additionally eliminate the uterine unite after the beneficiary has had the ideal measure of youngsters) and the mental satisfaction of indeed bearing one's kids.

    What is a Liver transplant?

    The replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person is known as liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation. Although the availability of donor organs is a considerable limitation, liver transplantation is a treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure.

    What happens during a Liver Transplant?

  • A portion of the Liver from the donor is removed.
  • Then the diseased Liver is removed.
  • Next, the doctor places the donated liver in the patient's body.
  • Bile ducts and blood vessels are connected to this newly transplanted Liver.
  • Causes

  • Cirrhosis
  • Acute hepatic necrosis
  • Chronic liver failure
  • Biliary atresia
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Primary liver cancers
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Diagnosis

  • Jaundice
  • Ascites
  • Bleeding in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract
  • Hepatic encephalopathy.
  • Reasons to Get a Liver Transplant

  • Alcoholic liver disease occurs when the liver damage is due to excess alcohol consumption
  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a build-up of fat in the Liver and causes damage to the liver cells.
  • Genetic diseases like hemochromatosis affect the Liver.
  • Ailments of the bile ducts, namely primary biliary cirrhosis.
  • How do you know if you need a Liver Transplant?

    Specific symptoms indicate that a person needs a liver transplant. They are:

  • Skin and eyes becoming yellowish (jaundice)
  • Pain and Swelling in the abdomen
  • Swelling in the legs and ankles
  • Itchy Skin
  • Dark colour of the urine
  • Pale colour of the stool
  • Chronic fatigue Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Gets bruised easily
  • Legal Requirements

  • The donor must have a matching blood type with the patient. It is not mandatory that the donor must be a relative or family member.
  • Pregnant and obese individuals cannot opt for liver donation.
  • Donors between the ages of 18 to 65 years can opt for donation. The donor must have good health and no history of other diseases. The donor must avoid smoking six weeks before the surgery.
  • The Liver Transplant Process

  • Make an incision in the abdomen of the patient.
  • Cut off the blood vessels to the diseased Liver.
  • Removal of the diseased liver from the body of the patient.
  • Replacing the healthy liver of the donor.
  • Establishing a new connection between the blood vessels and the new Liver.
  • Closing up the incision in the abdomen.
  • Life After Liver Transplant

    It takes a year to recover after liver transplant surgery fully. However, one can go back to normal activities after a few weeks. Apart from this, one needs to go for regular check-ups to check the functioning of the new Liver. The patient must continue with the medicines prescribed to stop their body from attacking the new Liver. They must follow a strict diet and refrain from consuming alcohol.